A Comprehensive Review on Catharanthus roseus L. (G.) Don: Clinical Pharmacology, Ethnopharmacology and Phytochemistry
Keywords:Alkaloid, Chemical constituents, Pharmacological action, Periwinkle, Traditional plant, Toxic effect
Catharanthus roseus is a beautiful flowering perennial herb which is always in bloom as ornamental plant. It is known as Madagascar periwinkle. This plant characterized as terpenoids indole alkaloid producing plant cultivated in warm region. Besides alkaloid it is rich in phenolic compounds, organic acids and amino acid of pharmacological significance in its different parts. Traditionally, this herbal plant is boon to provide protective action for many deadly health problems being faced by humans by their direct or indirect usage in skin disease, high blood pressure, rheumatism, menstrual disorders, indigestion etc. But nowadays, transition to modern and formulated treatment has been increased. Alkaloid vincristine, vinblastine, vinflunine, vinorelbine and vindesine are clinically approved for treatment regimen. Its pharmacological actions are ranging from antimicrobial to anti-neoplastic which are discussed to understand the health promoting properties. Catharanthus roseus is a nontoxic traditional medicinal plant but its semi-finished and finished products are prone to certain kind of toxic effects. Major anticancer drugs isolated from C. Roseus are Oncovin and Velban marketed world widely in millions of tons. This article provides evidence for clinical effectiveness and toxicity of approved phytoconstituents which is relevant for safety evaluation of various folksier and pharmacological activities.