Royal Jelly: From Queen Bee’s Armamentarium to Applications for Mankind
Keywords:Bioactives, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Royal jelly, Vitamins
It is the yellowish-white, acidic fluid known as royal jelly (RJ) that is secreted by the hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of nursing bees and supplied to growing worker larvae during the first three days and for the length of the queen bee's life. RJ is a prized and revered natural material that has been utilized for centuries in alternative medicine, nutritional supplements, and beauty products all around the globe. As the most studied bee product, researchers have been able to learn more about its bioactivities such as antibacterial, antioxidant, antiaging, immunomodulatory, and general tonic action in clinical trials, microbiological organisms, farm animals, and laboratory animals. It is often used in the treatment of many different diseases and conditions, including diabetes mellitus, CVD, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, etc. The recent advances focus on research on the primary bioactive constituents of RJ, including peptides, fatty acids, phenolics, proteins, etc. to gain a thorough knowledge of biology, biochemistry, and therapeutics to the benefit of life and promote people's health.