Advanced Molecular Mechanisms of Epilepsy
Keywords:Central Nervous System, Epilepsy, Hormones, Molecular Mechanisms, Neurotransmitter functions
The Central Nervous System (CNS) is a complex network composed of the cerebral cortex and the vertebral column, orchestrating intricate processes through neural networks and chemical regulation. Neurotransmission in the CNS involves neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, neuromediators, and neurotropic factors, playing distinct roles in cellular activity and synaptic plasticity. Various neurotransmitters such as dopamine, glutamate, GABA, glycine, serotonin, and others exert diverse effects on the CNS through specific receptors, influencing synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability. GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, acts via GABA-A and GABA-B receptors, modulating Cl-ion channels and second messenger systems, impacting seizure activity and CNS function. Epilepsy, a neurological disorder characterized by abnormal brain activity leading to recurrent seizures, results from an imbalance between excitatory (glutamate) and inhibitory (GABA) systems. The pathophysiology involves neuronal hyperexcitability, disrupted ion channels, and neurotransmitter imbalances, leading to seizures with varying symptoms and severity. The etiology of epilepsy encompasses genetic predisposition, head injuries, brain disorders, infections, prenatal injuries, and developmental disorders. Treatment options include medications, surgery, brain stimulation therapies, and dietary interventions like the ketogenic diet Understanding the mechanisms underlying epilepsy involves exploring neurotransmitter interactions, ion channel dynamics, and neuroendocrine modulation. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and steroid hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen, play roles in seizure susceptibility, offering potential avenues for therapeutic intervention. In conclusion, unravelling the complexities of the CNS and epilepsy involves deciphering intricate neural pathways, neurotransmitter functions, and hormonal influences. Developing targeted therapies that modulate these intricate systems may offer promising approaches for managing epilepsy and related neurological conditions.